Confucianism stood for a rigid, detailed, traditional pattern of hierarchical social behavior.
The literature of Judaism General considerations A paradigmatic statement is made in the narrative that begins with Genesis and ends with Joshua. In the early chapters of Genesis, the divine is described as the creator of humankind and the entire natural order. In the stories of Edenthe Flood, and the Tower of Babelhumans are recognized as rebellious and disobedient.
In the patriarchal stories about AbrahamIsaacJacoband Josepha particular family is called upon to restore the relationship between God and humankind.
The prophetic books in the Hebrew Bible these include the historical narratives up to the Babylonian Exile—i.
These have been clothed in philosophical, mystical, ethnic, and political vocabularies, among others. The emphases have been various, the disagreements often profound. No single exposition has exhausted the possibilities of the affirmations or of the relationship between them.
Philosophers have expounded them on the highest level of abstraction, using the language of the available philosophical systems. Mystics have enveloped them in the extravagant prose of speculative systems and in simple folktales. Attempts have been made to encompass them in theoretical ethical statements and to express them through practical ethical behaviour.
The biblical texts, themselves the products of a long period of transmission and embodying more than a single outlook, were subjected to extensive study and interpretation over many centuries and, when required, were translated into other languages.
The whole literature remains the basis of further developments, so that any attempt to formulate a statement of the affirmations of Judaism must, however contemporary it seeks to be, give heed to the scope and variety of speculation and formulation in the past. In its written form, Torah was considered to be especially present in the first five books of the Bible the Pentateuchwhich themselves came to be called Torah.
The oral tradition interpreted the written Torah, adapted its precepts to ever-changing political and social circumstances, and supplemented it with new legislation. Thus, the oral tradition added a dynamic dimension to the written code, making it a perpetual process rather than a closed system.
The vitality of this tradition is fully demonstrated in the way the ancient laws were adapted after the destruction of the Temple in 70 ce and by the role played by the Talmud in the survival of the Jewish people in exile.
By the 11th century, Diaspora Jews lived in a Talmudic culture that united them and that superseded geographical boundaries and language differences. Jewish communities governed themselves according to Talmudic law, and individuals regulated the smallest details of their lives by it.
Scripture, Halakhic and Haggadic MidrashMishnaand Gemara were the sources that Jewish leaders used to give their communities stability and flexibility. Jewish communities and individuals of the Diaspora faced novel and unexpected situations that had to be dealt with in ways that would provide continuity while making it possible to exist with the unprecedented.
Prophecy and religious experience Torah in the broad sense includes the whole Hebrew Bible, including the books of the Prophets. According to the Prophets, God was revealed in the nexus of historical events and made ethical demands upon the community.
In Rabbinic Judaism the role of the prophet—the charismatic person—as a source of Torah ended in the period of Ezra i.
This opinion may have been a reaction to the luxuriant growth of apocalyptic speculation, a development that was considered dangerous and unsettling in the period after the Bar Kokhba revolt, or Second Jewish Revolt — ce. Indeed, there seems to have developed a suspicion that reliance on unrestrained individual experience as a source of Torah was inimical to the welfare of the community.
Such an attitude was by no means new. Related to this is the reluctance on the part of teachers in the early centuries of the Common Era to point to wonders and miracles in their own time.
Thus, even among the speculative mystics of the Middle Ageswhere allegorization of Scripture abounds, the structure of the community and the obligations of the individual are not displaced by the deepening of personal religious life through mystical experience.
Admittedly, there have been occasions when Torah, even in the wide sense, has been rigidly applied. In certain historical situations the dynamic process of Rabbinic Judaism has been treated as a static structure.
What is of greater significance, however, is the way in which this tendency toward inflexibility has been reversed by the inherent dynamism of the rabbinic tradition. Modern views of Torah Since the end of the 18th century, the traditional position has been challenged both in detail and in principle.
The rise of biblical criticism has raised a host of questions about the origins and development of Scripture and thus about the very concept of Torah, in the senses in which it has functioned in Judaism. Naturalistic views of God have required a reinterpretation of Torah in sociological terms.
Other positions of many sorts have been and undoubtedly will be forthcoming. What is crucial, however, is the concern of all these positions to retain the concept of Torah as one of the central and continuing affirmations of Judaism. Haim Zalman Dimitrovsky Basic beliefs and doctrines Judaism is more than an abstract intellectual system, though there have been many efforts to view it systematically.
It affirms divine sovereignty disclosed in creation nature and in history, without necessarily insisting upon—but at the same time not rejecting—metaphysical speculation about the divine. It insists that the community has been confronted by the divine not as an abstraction but as a person with whom the community and its members have entered into a relationship.
It is, as the concept of Torah indicates, a program of human action, rooted in this personal confrontation.
Further, the response of this particular people to its encounter with God is viewed as significant for all humankind.
The community is called upon to express its loyalty to God and the covenant by exhibiting solidarity within its corporate life on every level, including every aspect of human behaviourfrom the most public to the most private.
Thus, even Jewish worship is a communal celebration of the meetings with God in history and in nature.Daoism  stands alongside Confucianism as one of the two great religious/philosophical systems of China. Traditionally traced to the mythical Laozi “Old Philosopher,” Philosophical Daoism owes more to “philosopher Zhuang” (Zhuangzi) (4 th Century BCE).
Daoism is an umbrella that covers a range of similarly motivated doctrines. Compare & contrast Daoism & Confucianism Daoism (religion of nature) emphasizes education spontaneity, harmony, and individualism Confucianism emphasizes on .
is as usual the place to go to get quantitative analysis of the primaries. They project Trump as getting 85 of the 91 delegates in New York, and still coming up about eighty delegates short of locking in a victory before the convention.
The main difference I know of is the concept of good and evil. According to Daoism, these are two essential elements in the universe that must always balance against each other. Diffen › Philosophy › Religion Confucianism and Taoism are both ancient Chinese styles of living.
Confucianism believes in setting good examples for others to follow, primarily in 5 key relationships: ruler and subject, wife and husband, older and younger sibling, friend and friend, and father and son. At ancient times, before Daoism Religion was founded, The comparison of the teachings of Laozi and Jesus of Nazareth has been done by several authors such as Martin Aronson, and Toropov & Hansen "Daoist philosophy".
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.