They were seized by a Maya lord, and most were sacrificedalthough two managed to escape. Maya peoples The Spanish conquest stripped away most of the defining features of Maya civilization. However, many Maya villages remained remote from Spanish colonial authority, and for the most part continued to manage their own affairs.
Issue 43 — Technology and language assessment This issue of Research Notes is dedicated to the latest developments in technology harnessed for the purposes of language assessment at Cambridge English.
The very first Research Notes issue, published incontained an article on the use of computers in the Local Item Banking System at Cambridge English. The theme of the use of technology was continued in issues 12 and 23which addressed the relationship between technology and language assessment within Cambridge English examinations.
First FCE ; second language acquisition of dynamic spatial relations; demonstrating cognitive validity of IELTS academic Writing task; qualification and certainty in L2 writing — a learner corpus study; prompt and rater effects in second language writing performance assessment; computer-based and paper-based writing assessment — a comparative text analysis; a study of the context and cognitive validity of a Cambridge English: Issue 41 — Linguistic features between that define proficiency levels This issue focuses on the linguistic features of a variety of Cambridge English examinations and how they differ from one proficiency level to another.
Knowledge About Language and the assessment of lexis, phonology, grammar and discourse. Issue 40 — The impact of national education projects This issue focuses on governmental projects that go across the educational spectrum from primary level to higher education.
Business Certificates as a measurement instrument in higher education in China; Cambridge English trains Thai teachers; Colombia national bilingual project; working together — the case of the English Diagnostic Test and the Chilean Ministry of Education.
Issue 39 — Quality assurance in language assessment The theme of this issue is quality assurance and its impact on language assessment, language and teaching. Business Certificates examinations; international accreditation of quality in language learning and teaching.
Issue 38 — Supporting the professional development of educators and other stakeholders This issue focuses on professional development, both within Cambridge English and more widely. This topic includes the services we offer to encourage and support the professional development of educators and other stakeholders working with those taking a Cambridge English examination or teaching award.
This is followed by a series of articles by Cambridge English staff describing in more detail the practical, theoretical and wider issues that we face on a daily basis in relation to the CEFR.
Key for Schools and Cambridge English: Preliminary for Schools; validating a worldwide placement test for German; linking learning and assessment: This event focused on the social and educational impact of language assessment and involved hundreds of delegates from many countries.
In this issue we include contributions from Cambridge English colleagues and external contributors, all of whom describe various aspects of the social impact of language assessment in a range of contexts. In this issue we include contributions from Cambridge English colleagues and external contributors, all of whom describe various aspects of the educational impact of language assessment in a range of contexts.
Issue 33 — English Profile: CEFR for English This issue focuses on English Profile, a collaborative programme of research, consultation and publication, designed to enhance the learning, teaching and assessment of English worldwide.
We describe how English Profile came about, its academic and institutional partners and its three research strands, with contributions from project partners and researchers from the growing number of English Profile networks.
Issue 32 — Assessing listening In this issue we focus on the skill of listening, the receptive skill which features in all of our language assessments.
We discuss issues relevant to testing listening comprehension including establishing the nature of listening ability in a second language; the impact of technology, including the computer-based testing of listening; the writing of listening test items, including establishing sources of item difficulty; the nature of vocabulary in Listening tasks across English for specific purposes and General English tests.
Issue 31 — Assessing reading In this issue we focus on the skill of reading, a component in all of our language assessments and teaching awards.
We approach reading in a number of ways: Issue 30 - Exam review process In this issue we focus on the processes and outcomes involved in reviewing our exams, with specific reference to the reviews of Cambridge English: Advanced CAE which culminated in December with the first administration of the updated exams.
This issue provides an overview of the Cambridge English: First and Cambridge English: Advanced Review Project and presents a range of major research and consultation activities — together with their outcomes — undertaken both within this project and for other exams.
Issue 29 - Qualifications for teachers In this issue we focus on the growing range of Cambridge English qualifications and awards designed to support initial training and ongoing professional development for teachers of English worldwide.
Cambridge English teacher training and development — future directions; the Delta Revision Project — progress update; Delta reliability — estimating and reporting examiner performance indices for the written examination component; what difference does Delta make?
Issue 28 — Testing young learners In this issue we focus on the theme of testing young learners. Young Learners YLE ; she goes on to consider the modifications and trialling of three different tasks and describes the research which was carried out to update the vocabulary lists.
Issue 27 — Testing English for business In this issue we focus on the theme of testing English for business and other work-related contexts. In his opening article, David Thighe discusses the response by Cambridge English to the changing assessment requirements that are resulting from globalisation and migration.
Key issues include the notion of specificity, the nature of authenticity and the role of content knowledge. Issue 26 — Corpora and language testing The theme of this issue is corpora and language assessment, which is an increasingly important aspect of language testing and related areas such as teaching and publishing, as well as being more widely used in diverse fields within linguistics and education.
In this issue we provide an overview of the use of corpora in testing to date and describe our current involvement in the development of corpus resources, while also considering how these and other technological developments, such as Electronic Script Management ESMinform our understanding of the constructs underlying language tests.
Issue 25 - Language for specific purposes LSP tests The theme of this issue is testing Language for Specific Purposes LSPan area of growing relevance in a world where specific domains demand their own language assessments in addition to well-established General English provision.
Linked to an increase in the number of domains requiring specific provision business, legal, medical, etc.Apr 25, · Kali April 20, at pm. There’s a + year old cemetery near me. The city seems to have grown around it, so it’s just a little cemetery, about the size that would be taken up by a mid-sized house, on a residential, suburban street (I say suburban, we’re less than a .
The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its hieroglyphic script—the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system. The Maya civilization developed in an area that encompasses .
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