Works cited American Jewish history commenced in with the expulsion of Jews from Spain. This action set off a period of intense Jewish migration. Seeking to escape the clutches of the Holy Inquisition, some Jews in the sixteenth century sought refuge in the young Calvinist republic of The Netherlands. A century later, hundreds of their descendants crossed the ocean to settle in the new Dutch colony of Recife in Brazil, where Jewish communal life became possible for the first time in the New World.
Different tribes of Native Americans lived in the area that custom essay writing cheap caribbean now California for an estimated 13, to 15, years. Over tribes and bands inhabited the area. California's population held about one-third of all Native Americans in what is now the United States.
The natives controlled fire on a regional scale to create a low-intensity fire ecology which prevented larger, catastrophic fires and sustained a low-density agriculture in loose rotation; a sort of "wild" permaculture. This popular Spanish fantasy was printed in several editions with the earliest surviving edition published about In exploring Baja California the earliest explorers thought the Baja California peninsula was an island and applied the name California to it.
European explorers flying the flags of Spain and of England explored the Pacific Coast of California beginning in the midth century.
Francisco de Ulloa explored the west coast of present-day Mexico including the Gulf of Californiaproving that Baja California was a peninsula,  but in spite of his discoveries the myth persisted in European circles that California was an island.
Rumors of fabulously wealthy cities located somewhere along the California coast, as well as a possible Northwest Passage that would provide a much shorter route to the Indiesprovided an incentive to explore further. He died in southern California in Cabrillo and his men found that there was essentially nothing for the Spanish to easily exploit in California, and located at the extreme limits of exploration and trade from Spain it would be left essentially unexplored and unsettled for the next years.
The Cabrillo expedition depicted the Indians as living at a subsistence level, typically located in small rancherias of extended family groups of to people.
Traditional clothing was minimal in the summer, with tanned deerhide and other animal leathers and furs and coarse woven articles of grass clothing used in winter. Feathers were sewn into prayer pieces worn for ceremonies. Some tribes around Santa Barbara, California and the Channel Islands California were using large plank canoes to fish and trade, while tribes in the California delta and San Francisco Bay Area were using tule canoes and some tribes on the Northwest coast carved redwood dugout canoes.
Despite this, the natural abundance of California, and the environmental management techniques developed by California tribes over millennia, allowed for the highest population density in the Americas north of Mexico. This tradition of landscape management through fire ecology maintained acorn groves and other food sources, which along with knowledge of migratory herds such as elk and anadromous runs of salmon in the rivers, supported villages, small tribes, and extended family groups.
A dietary staple for most Indian tribes in interior California was acornswhich were dried, shelled, ground to flour, soaked in water to leach out their tanninand cooked. The grinding holes worn into large rocks over centuries of use are still visible in many rocks today.
Acorn preparation was a very labor-intensive process nearly always done by women. There are estimates that some Indians might have eaten as much as one ton of acorns in one year. Acorns were gathered in large quantities, and could be stored for a reliable winter food source.
Local trade between Indian tribal groups enabled them to acquire seasonings such as salt, or foodstuffs and other goods that might be rare in certain locales, such as flint or obsidian for making spear and arrow points. Native cultures in California are much different from other Indian cultures in North America, and some have survived to the present day.
California indigenous language diversity numbered 80 to 90 languages and dialects, some surviving to the present although endangered. Spanish trading route [ edit ] In the Spanish developed a trading route where they took gold and silver from the Americas and traded it for goods and spices from China and other Asian areas.
The Spanish set up their main base in the Philippines. The trade with Mexico involved using an annual passage of Manila galleon s. The Eastbound galleons first went north to about 40 degrees latitude and then turning East they could use the westerly trade winds and currents.
San Francisco Bay escaped discovery for two centuries until it was finally discovered by land exploration in It is believed Drake put ashore somewhere north of San Francisco, where the Golden Hind underwent extensive repairs and accumulated needed supplies for a trip across the Pacific.
Leaving California, he completed the second recorded circumnavigation of the world after Ferdinand Magellan in The exact location of Drake's port is still undetermined, but a prominent bay on the California coast, Drakes Baybears his name.
He claimed all the land south of 42 degrees latitude, north of the imprecise Spanish claims and eastward from coast to coast for England, calling it Nova Albion. The term "Nova Albion" was often used on European maps to designate territory north of the Spanish claims. Spanish maps, explorations etc.
As was typical in this era, there were conflicting claims to the same territory, and the indigenous peoples who lived there were never consulted.Misc thoughts, memories, proto-essays, musings, etc.
And on that dread day, the Ineffable One will summon the artificers and makers of graven images, and He will command them to give life to their creations, and failing, they and their creations will be dedicated to the flames.
The table below presents an abbreviated geologic time scale, with times and events germane to this essay. Please refer to a complete geologic time scale when this one seems inadequate.
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