For two decades, officials advocating for beach renourishment argued that the beaches were indispensable to State and local tourism economies and provided the only real protection for people and property threatened by hurricanes and tropical storms. They also knew that the protection would soon be tested.
Gross domestic product The economic growth rate is calculated from data on GDP estimated by countries' statistical agencies. The rate of growth of GDP per capita is calculated from data on GDP and people for the initial and final periods included in the analysis of the analyst.
Determinants of per capita GDP growth[ edit ] In national income accounting, per capita output can be calculated using the following factors: Productivity improving technologies economic history Economic growth has traditionally been attributed to the accumulation of human and physical capital and the increase in productivity and creation of new goods arising from technological innovation.
Increases in productivity are the major factor responsible for per capita economic growth — this has been especially evident since the midth century.
Most of the economic growth in the 20th century was due to increased output per unit of labor, materials, energy, and land less input per widget. The balance of the growth in output has come from using more inputs.
Both of these changes increase output. The increased output included more of the same goods produced previously and new goods and services. During the Second Industrial Revolutiona major factor of productivity growth was the substitution of inanimate power for human and animal labor.
Also there was a great increase in power as steam powered electricity generation and internal combustion supplanted limited wind and water power. Other productivity improvements included mechanized agriculture and scientific agriculture including chemical fertilizers and livestock and poultry management, and the Green Revolution.
Interchangeable parts made with machine tools powered by electric motors evolved into mass productionwhich is universally used today. Real food prices fell due to improvements in transportation and trade, mechanized agriculturefertilizersscientific farming and the Green Revolution.
Great sources of productivity improvement in the late 19th century were railroads, steam ships, horse-pulled reapers and combine harvestersand steam -powered factories. By the late 19th century both prices and weekly work hours fell because less labor, materials, and energy were required to produce and transport goods.
However, real wages rose, allowing workers to improve their diet, buy consumer goods and afford better housing. New goods and services included television, air conditioning and commercial aviation aftercreating enough new demand to stabilize the work week.
Productivity in the United States grew at an increasing rate throughout the 19th century and was most rapid in the early to middle decades of the 20th century. Demographic changes[ edit ] Demographic factors may influence growth by changing the employment to population ratio and the labor force participation rate.
Women with fewer children and better access to market employment tend to join the labor force in higher percentages. There is a reduced demand for child labor and children spend more years in school.
The increase in the percentage of women in the labor force in the U. Spending wave Other factors affecting growth[ edit ] Political institutions, property rights, and rule of law[ edit ] See also: These included new laws favorable to the establishment of business, including contract law and laws providing for the protection of private property, and the abolishment of anti-usury laws.
Enforcement of contractual rights is necessary for economic development because it determines the rate and direction of investments.
When the rule of law is absent or weak, the enforcement of property rights depends on threats of violence, which causes bias against new firms because they can not demonstrate reliability to their customers. Thanks to the underlying homogeneity of its land and people, England was able to achieve a unified legal and fiscal system since the Middle Ages that enabled it to substantially increase the taxes it raised after Many of these intermediate level institutions relied on informal private-order arrangements that combined with public-order institutions associated with states, to lay the foundations of modern rule of law states.
In many urban areas the poor "invade" private or government land to build their houses, so they do not hold title to these properties. Much unregistered property is held in informal form through various property associations and other arrangements. Reasons for extra-legal ownership include excessive bureaucratic red tape in buying property and building.
In some countries it can take over steps and up to 14 years to build on government land. Other causes of extra-legal property are failures to notarize transaction documents or having documents notarized but failing to have them recorded with the official agency.
Unregistered businesses and lack of accepted accounting methods are other factors that limit potential capital.
Specifically, "democracy increases future GDP by encouraging investment, increasing schooling, inducing economic reforms, improving public goods provision, and reducing social unrest.
However, surprisingly few research empirically examine and quantify entrepreneurship's impact on growth. This is due to endogeneity - forces that drive economic growth also drive entrepreneurship. In other words, the empirical analysis of the impact of entrepreneurship on growth is difficult because of the joint determination of entrepreneurship and economic growth.
A few papers use quasi-experimental designs, and have found that entrepreneurship and the density of small businesses indeed have a causal impact on regional growth.Not only is the Institute meeting a felt need by students but it has also achieved recognition by employers, many of whom sponsor their employees as students; and by the colleges, where the Institute’s examinations have been incorporated into business studies training programmes as a first step towards a more advanced qualification.
Course descriptions for all courses offered at San Diego Mesa College organized by department as described in the student course catalog. Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time.
It is conventionally measured as the percent rate of increase in real gross domestic product, or real GDP..
Growth is usually calculated in real terms - i.e., inflation-adjusted terms – to eliminate the distorting effect of inflation on the price of goods produced. The line of difference between Personnel Management and Human Resource Management is subtle.
Personnel Management treats workers as tools or machines whereas Human Resource Management treats . As a follow-up to Tuesday’s post about the majority-minority public schools in Oslo, the following brief account reports the latest statistics on the cultural enrichment of schools in Austria.
Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo. Many thanks to Hermes for the translation from benjaminpohle.com Free Essay: HRM PROJECT Table of Contents Executive Summary LO 1 Understand the difference between personnel management and human resources management .