This resulting dissatisfaction has its roots based in the misplaced expectations that society now places on external objects, other people, and our relationship to both of these, as the basis for creating happiness in our lives. The idea that happiness is "out there" or an inherent characteristic in some external object or person dogs western consciousness.
Friday, 27 February I wrote this article in for adult students at an evening class I was teaching at a local College of Further Education. The student group was made up of mothers who wanted to pursue their interest in the development of their young children and it also consisted of child care and youth workers who felt the course would might help them understand their work better.
In my view the theories are not prescriptive but they can help inform thoughtful and reflective child care. The process was related to the different psychosexual stages which he proposed a child goes through. According to Freud the important stages were the oral stage, the anal stage, and the phallic stage, the latter at about 4 to 5 years of age.
Freud suggests that it is during the phallic stage, that the boy resolves the Oedipus complex by learning to identify with his father. Freud and later psychoanalytic theorists applied a similar theory relating to girls. This leads a girl to seek a strong love relationship with her father.
For Freud the personality consisted of three elements: A balance between these elements means that the personality as a whole is balanced, and the person will experience no serious emotional problems.
The superego is said to operate as a kind of conscience and takes the role of an authoritarian father. Since the adult personality would depend on how well the child and parent formed an attachment, if the superego the authoritarian father is too well developed, then the person will feel oppressed.
Klein, Winnicott, Erikson and Bion Subsequent psychoanalytic theorists, such as Klein, Winnicott, Erikson and Bion, suggested that a well integrated child is one for whom the attachment between the infant and a parenting figure — usually the mother — is engendered within a holding or containing environment which allows the infant time to establish a sense of being an individual who is separate from the primary caring figure.
For them this relationship has a different but equally as intense significance for the maternal figure as it does for the infant. Erikson believed a healthy consistent attachment relationshiplead to the child being able to develop trusting relationships.
Harlow in his research with rhesus monkeys showed that infant monkeys needed comfort and security. Harlow concluded if infants were separated from their parents at birth, they missed a crucial period of attachment formation, which had negative implications for their socialisation in later life.
Bowlby suggested that unless firm attachment was formed between the child and his mother within the first five years of life, the child would develop an affectionless psychopathy that is being unable to feel any warmth for anyone else, or to show any concern for their welfare Bowlby, Michael Rutter disagreed with Bowlby.
He studied a group of adolescent boys to see if there was a relationship between delinquent and anti-social behaviour and early separation due to hospitalisation and also due to family problems.
He found that when such children returned to a stable environment, they would settle down and become less inclined to anti-social behaviour. Anna Freud Anna Freud, conducted a series of case studies of a group of 6 children from a war time concentration camp who had been orphaned.
She discovered that though the children experienced difficulties in their attachment to adults, they were firmly committed to each other.
They regarded their peers as the central figures of attachment, rather than their parents. Social LearningTheory Social Learning Theory which is associated with the work of Bandura, suggests that children learn behaviour from observing adults and copying them.
According to Social Learning Theory attachments are formed by children taking on the behaviours of adults with whom they interact. Research studies have concluded that attachment bonds develop more quickly if parents and infants interact.
Mary Ainsworth Mary Ainsworth who for a number of years worked closely with John Bowlby is a significant attachment theorist. It is a process by which infants seem to discriminate between the preferred adult and others.
These were procedures of 8 fixed actions which involved parents and a stranger entering a room where the infant was.
She categorised 3 types of attachment based on observation of how the infant reacted to the situation. Factors which Ainsworth sees as contributing to which kind of attachment develops are firstly the temperament of the child, whether it is friendly and good natured, or bad tempered.
Conclusions Whichever theory of attachment is considered, certain common conclusions can be drawn. Children need a secure environment in which they feel they have a clear identity and a role to play. They need good role models whose behaviour they will imitate.Attachment and Parenting Styles Influences on Adult Relationships.
psychologists argue that the kind of relationships infants have with their primary caregivers is the blueprint for the later life relationships (Schneider, Gruman & Coutts, ). Research has been able to confirm that our adult relationships are shaped by our early.
This has been the single most helpful thing I have read on attachment, and I am so grateful to you for it I’m in my 40’s; two years ago I started therapy for the first time – after my husband of 25 yrs was diagnosed with terminal cancer.
[footnote:] Gaston Bachelard in La Terre et les rêveries de fa volonté makes among others a suggestive study of the blacksmith. He shows how man, through the hammer and the anvil, asserts himself and his individuality. 'The blacksmith's instant is an instant at once well marked off and magnified.
What is attachment and why is it important? Attachment refers the particular way in which you relate to other people. Your style of attachment was formed at the very beginning of your life, during your first two years. Once established, it is a style that stays with you and plays out today in how.
Our early attachment styles are not necessarily identical to what we experience in later love relationships.
Intervening experiences in the time between infancy and adulthood can alter attachment. A listing of psychological research being conducted online.