Production of pulse protein product with reduced astringency Patent number: Pulse proteins of reduced astringency are obtained by fractionating pulse protein products which are completely soluble and heat stable in aqueous media at acid pH value of less than about 4. Grant Date of Patent:
Plants produce a vast and diverse assortment of organic compounds, the great majority of which do not appear to participate directly in their growth and development.
These substances, traditionally referred to as secondary metabolites or plant natural products, often are distributed among limited taxonomic groups within the plant kingdom.
The functions of secondary metabolites remain largely unknown, although a number of compounds have been associated with attributes useful to the plants e.
There is a growing interest in plant natural products, since these products often have a wide range of applications in different kinds of industries, including pharmaceutical industries, cosmetic industries, food industries, detergent industries, etc.
Secondary Metabolites of Commercial Interest—Saponins Saponins are an example of a group of plant secondary metabolites. Saponins are glycosylated compounds classified as either triterpenoids, steroids, or steroidal glycoalkaloids.
Saponins consist of one or two sugar moieties which are coupled to the aglycon mono- and bisdesmosides, respectively.
Saponins can be hydrolysed to sapogenins and sugar moieties by acid hydrolysis or enzymatic methods. Saponins are water soluble high molecular weight compounds with molecular weights ranging from to more than 2, daltons. Accordingly, Saponins can be classified according to their aglycone composition as follows: The asymmetric distribution of their hydrophobic aglycone and hydrophilic sugar moieties confers an amphipathic character to these compounds which are largely responsible for their detergent-like properties.
In some cases saponins may be acylated with organic acids such as acetic, malonic, angelic and others as part of their structure Hostettmann K. Saponins, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Saponins—Applications and Commercial Importance Saponins have significant commercial uses.
Until recently, saponins have been largely overlooked except in cases where their presence was considered toxic. There are human benefits to the use of galactomannans as well. In particular, it has been reported that fenugreek galactomannan is most evident in the lowering of cholesterol in both liver and blood plasma.
Cosmetic and detergent industries: Saponins therefore have potential applications in the cosmetic and in the detergent industries.
Pharmaceutical and therapeutic applications: Saponins furthermore have the ability of forming insoluble complexes with cholesterol, which makes some of them suitable for use in the pharmaceutical industry as cholesterol lowering agents.
Saponins also have other therapeutical effects. Saponins from chestnut do e.
Saponins, when injected into the blood stream, are furthermore highly toxic due to their haemolytic properties. Saponins are usually relatively harmless when ingested orally. Steroidal saponins are of great interest owing to their relationship with such compounds as the sex hormones, cortisone, diuretic steroids, vitamin D and cardiac glycosides.
Food and nutraceuticals industry: Saponins have flavoring, sweetening, antioxidant, foaming, complexing, sequestration, anticarcinogenic and antimicrobial properties. They could be used as an antioxidant, emulsifier, surfactant, ingredient for nutraceutical in food, health food and nutraceuticals industry and as such represent another value-added fraction for recovery.
Limitations to Widespread Use of Saponins Cost: At present however, a major obstacle in exploiting the wide range of potential applications of saponins is the fact that commercially available saponins are relatively expensive. Commercially available plant extracts containing saponins are extracts of Saponaria officinalis, Quillaia bark and stem, Castanea sativa seeds, and extracts of various Yucca species.
Liquorice root, primula root, and senega root can also serve as raw material for saponin extracts. Limited raw material sources: A problem in this field is that the available sources of saponin extracts are relatively few.
And in some cases, e. Quillaia bark, the plants are often sparse and expensive because they cannot be cultivated in an efficient manner.
Usually the saponins are present in relatively low concentrations. Complex structures, which limit chemical synthesis: It should also be noted that saponins are quite complicated compounds and it has not so far been profitable to develop methods for chemical synthesis of these compounds.
Plant extracts containing saponins and sapogenins are thus of general interest within a wide range of different industries. There is therefore a growing need in the art for alternative sources of saponin extracts and these plant sources should preferably be cheap, easy to obtain, and preferably the saponin content should be relatively high.Stevia sweeteners are made by extracting steviol glycosides from the leaves of the stevia plant and purifying them to remove some of the bitter attributes found in the crude extract.
Steviol glycosides all have a common basic backbone called steviol. Organic Chemistry I – CHEM DL01 September 26, Organic Chemistry Experiment 4B Lab Report Extraction of Organic Compounds From Natural Sources: Extraction of Trimyristin From Nutmeg Introduction The purpose of this experiment is to illustrate how a solid natural product can be extracted from its natural source through the use of an.
Open CHEMISTRY. CHWMISTRY quiz. STUDY. PLAY. The active ingredient in pepper spray is. capsaicin, which is a chemical derived from the fruit of plants in the Capsicum genus, including chilis. adhesives and food glazing agents. They are also prized as an important source of raw materials for organic synthesis, and as constituents of.
The pulse protein product is obtained by extracting a pulse protein source material with an aqueous calcium salt solution to form an aqueous pulse protein solution, separating the aqueous pulse protein solution from residual pulse protein source, adjusting the pH of the aqueous pulse protein solution to a pH of about to about to produce.
2 oz Honeyquat is naturally derived by using the process of extracting the moisture molecules from pure liquid honey. The active fractions of FUROSTANOLIC SAPONINS with Protodioscin as one of the major biologically active component is analysed by HPLC, using Protodioscin as the reference standard and as per conditions given in Table 1.