A spy is a person employed to seek out top secret information from a source. Within the United States Intelligence Community"asset" is a more common usage. A case officer or Special Agentwho may have diplomatic status i. Cutouts are couriers who do not know the agent or case officer but transfer messages.
Organization[ edit ] An intelligence officer's clothing, accessories, and behavior must be as unremarkable as possible — their lives and others' may depend on it. A spy is a person employed to seek out top secret information from a source. Within the United States Intelligence Community"asset" is a more common usage.
A case officer or Special Agentwho may have diplomatic status i. Cutouts are couriers who do not know the agent or case officer but transfer messages. A safe house is a refuge for spies. Spies often seek to obtain secret information from another source.
In larger networks the organization can be complex with many methods to avoid detection, including clandestine cell systems. Often the players have never met. Case officers are stationed in foreign countries to recruit and to supervise intelligence agents, who in turn spy on targets in their countries where they are assigned.
A spy need not be a citizen of the target country—hence does not automatically commit treason when operating within it. While the more common practice is to recruit a person already trusted with access to sensitive information, sometimes a person with a well-prepared synthetic identity cover backgroundcalled a legend in tradecraftmay attempt to infiltrate a target organization.
These agents can be moles who are recruited before they Industrial espionage intelligence access to secretsdefectors who are recruited after they get access to secrets and leave their country or defectors in place who get access but do not leave. A legend is also employed for an individual who is not an illegal agent, but is an ordinary citizen who is "relocated", for example, a "protected witness".
Nevertheless, such a non-agent very likely will also have a case officer who will act as controller. As in most, if not all synthetic identity schemes, for whatever purpose illegal or legalthe assistance of a controller is required.
Spies may also be used to spread disinformation in the organization in which they are planted, such as giving false reports about their country's military movements, or about a competing company's ability to bring a product to market. Spies may be given other roles that also require infiltration, such as sabotage.
Many governments spy on their allies as well as their enemies, although they typically maintain a policy of not commenting on this.
Governments also employ private companies to collect information on their behalf such as SCG International RiskInternational Intelligence Limited and others. Many organizations, both national and non-national, conduct espionage operations.
It should not be assumed that espionage is always directed at the most secret operations of a target country. National and terrorist organizations and other groups are also targets. Communications both are necessary to espionage and clandestine operationsand also a great vulnerability when the adversary has sophisticated SIGINT detection and interception capability.
Agents must also transfer money securely. Agents in espionage[ edit ] In espionage jargon, an "agent" is the person who does the spying; a citizen of one country who is recruited by a second country to spy on or work against his own country or a third country.
In popular usage, this term is often erroneously applied to a member of an intelligence service who recruits and handles agents; in espionage such a person is referred to as an intelligence officer, intelligence operative or case officer.
There are several types of agent in use today: Peddlersfabricatorsand others who work for themselves rather than a service are not double agents because they are not agents. The fact that double agents have an agent relationship with both sides distinguishes them from penetrations, who normally are placed with the target service in a staff or officer capacity.
This can be useful in capturing important information from an agent that is attempting to seek allegiance with another country. The double agent usually has knowledge of both intelligence services and can identify operational techniques of both, thus making third-party recruitment difficult or impossible.
The knowledge of operational techniques can also affect the relationship between the operations officer or case officer and the agent if the case is transferred by an operational targeting officer to a new operations officer, leaving the new officer vulnerable to attack.
This type of transfer may occur when an officer has completed his term of service or when his cover is blown.Industrial Espionage: Intelligence Techniques and Countermeasures May by N.R.
Bottom and R.R.J. Gallati. Hardcover.
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FREE Shipping on eligible orders. To simplify: Intelligence is the data or knowledge that is gained and espionage is the process used to gather the intelligence. I agree that espionage is a matter of national security and is often a military matter. Corporate espionage — sometimes also called industrial espionage, economic espionage or corporate spying — is the practice of using espionage techniques for commercial or financial purposes.
Nonetheless, Russian intelligence still touts the value of industrial espionage. 10 France also spies on US companies, and one press article claims that "a secret CIA report recently warned of French agents roaming the United States looking for business secrets.". Feb 08, · Chinese Industrial Espionage: Technology Acquisition and Military Modernization.
William C. Hannas, James Mulvenon, and . To simplify: Intelligence is the data or knowledge that is gained and espionage is the process used to gather the intelligence.
Feb 08, · Although PRC espionage is global in scope, the most important target is the United States. Relying primarily on Chinese-language government and non-government sources, the coauthors intend to raise awareness of the threat nationally and alert decisionmakers to the gravity of the problem. Feb 08, · Chinese Industrial Espionage: Technology Acquisition and Military Modernization. William C. Hannas, James Mulvenon, and . Counter intelligence in industrial espionage by the United States on a national level is virtually impossible because of public scrutiny in our open society. On the positive side, the upheaval of a rapid transition from the global political high-tension and high stability of the.
I agree that espionage is a matter of .