Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. Is it right that Orestes, a young man in no way responsible for his situation, should be commanded by a godin the name of justiceto avenge his father by murdering his mother? Is there no other way out of his dilemma than through the ancient code of blood revenge, which will only compound the dilemma? Was it right that Prometheusin befriending humankind with the gifts of fire and the arts, should offend the presiding god Zeus and himself be horribly punished?
In Northern Italy, at the same time as the brilliant artistic achievements of the Italian Renaissance, the city-states of Italy were locked in near-continual warfare until the Treaty of Lodi brought almost half a century of peace to the Italian peninsula.
A new era of warfare was beginning. Iberia and the Atlantic: Portugal, Castile, and Aragon were steeped in the traditions of the Reconquista, of expanding the dominion of the Christian world by force of arms. The Reconquista had established a habit in the Iberian kingdoms of conquering Muslims lands and reducing their Muslim and Jewish inhabitants to subordinate status or in some cases to outright slavery.
By the fifteenth century, these kingdoms had nearly completed the Reconquista. As stated earlier, only Granada remained under Muslim rule.
Meanwhile, over the fourteenth century, both Venice and the Ottoman Empire had forced the Italian city-state of Genoa out of the Eastern Mediterranean, so its sailors and ship owners turned their focus to the western half of the Mediterranean Sea.
Constantly on the lookout for new markets, Genoese merchants already knew from trade with the Islamic Maghreb that West Africa was a source of gold. Iberia in CE Source: Bythe combination of the compass, a map called the portolan a map that could accurately represent coastlinesand ships that by operating on sails rather than oars needed fewer people meant that European navigators could begin venturing into open waters of the Atlantic that the Arabs and Ancient Romans had largely avoided.
Public Domain Genoese merchants began tentatively sailing into the Atlantic. In the early s, they were regularly visiting the Canary Islands. These merchants and others from Western Europe increasingly served in the employ of Iberian kings. Over the next century, the Spanish would conquer and settle the islands, driven by the Reconquista ideal of the military spread of the Christian faith.
In the mid-fifteenth century, the kingdom of Portugal began the conquest and colonization of the Azores, nearly miles to the southwest of Iberia in the Atlantic. But he had never truly gained the trust of his father, and a cabal of mamluks loyal to as-Salih murdered Turanshah.
They then raised Shajar al-Durr to the throne. Her rule resulted in much controversy and su ered from many internal problems. The mamluks responded by installing into power one of their own, a certain Aybak. He married Shajar al-Durr, and she abdicated the throne.
As a social group, their former status as slaves provided them with enough group cohesion to overthrow the Ayyubids. Shajar al-Durr remained unsatisfied in her new role, however. In fact, she saw herself as another Cleopatra and wanted to rule in her own right.
InShajar al-Durr had Aybak strangled and claimed that he had died a natural death. However, Qutuz, a leading mamluk, did not believe her story. Under duress, her servants confessed to the murder.
Qutuz arrested Shajar al-Durr and imprisoned her in the Red Tower. He reigned as sultan for two years until Qutuz deposed him, as he thought the sultanate needed a strong and capable ruler to deal with the looming Mongol threat. Hulagu left his general Kitbuqa behind with a smaller army to fight the Mamluks.
During the ensuing battle, the Mamluk General Baybars drew out the Mongols with a feigned retreat. The Mamluks captured and executed Kitbuqa, and forced the remnants of the Mongol forces to retreat. Just days after their signal victory over the Mongols, Baybars — murdered Qutuz, continuing a pattern of rule in which only the strongest Mamluk rulers could survive.
Baybars owned all of the land, so mamluks only received the right to collect taxes from the land, a right akin to usufruct in feudal Europe. Since the Ptolemys, Egypt had been ruled by foreigners.Sep 04, · Treaty of Fontainebleau () topic.
The Treaty of Fontainebleau was a secret agreement of in which France ceded Louisiana to Spain. The treaty followed the last battle in the French and Indian War in North America, the Battle of Signal Hill in September , which confirmed British control of Canada.
one of the most influential humanist philosophers of the early Italian Renaissance, an astrologer, a reviver of Neoplatonism who was in touch with every major academic thinker and writer of his day, and the first translator of Plato's complete extant works into Latin.
The games, held every September, are originally a harvest festival. Taking place between the Palatine and Aventine hills in Rome, in an area known as the Circus Maximus, the main events are sporting contests - chariot races or boxing matches.
The emergence of the importance of a lineage dating back to Gaia, particularly in literature from the fifth century BC onward, is evidenced in the archaeological development of the sanctuary at that time. Jan 29, · The Misuse of Romans 13 1.
I've heard some misuses of Romans in the past, and I've recently been hearing some that probably haven't seriously been used for a long time.
War with Tripoli begins and will last until In the last weeks of his presidency, John Adams creates new judgeships and "packs the courts" with Federalist appointees to mitigate the effects of the election. Among his appointments is John Marshall as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.